South Africa declared itself a Republic and leaves the Commonwealth. Mandela headed the ANC’s new military wing, which launched a sabotage campaign against the apartheid government. Seventy black demonstrators were killed in a peaceful protest at Sharpeville. The ANC is banned. The University Education Extended Amendment Act banned Black students from attending White universities. Government published the draft of the Bantu Laws. Amendment, a bill intended to remove most of the remaining rights of Africans in White areas, including the security of employment and residence. A UN Special Committee against apartheid was formed. ANC leader Nelson Mandela was captured and sentenced to life imprisonment. More than 3 million people were forcibly resettled in Black ‘homelands’.